Gum Diseases and Terrible Breath (Halitosis)

Gum diseases could be categorized into two broad groups, namely gingivitis and periodontitis.

Gingivitis can be an inflammation from the gingivae (gums) in all age ranges but manifests with greater frequency in children and adults.

Periodontitis is an inflammation with subsequent destruction with the other tooth-supporting structures, namely the alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum and subsequent lack of teeth. This problem mainly manifests at the begining of mid-life with severity increasing from the elderly.

Gingivitis can or may progress to periodontitis state in a individual.

Gum diseases have been found being just about the most widespread chronic diseases around the world having a prevalence which can be between 90 and 100 percent in adults over 35 years of age in developing countries. They have recently been been shown to be the reason behind tooth loss in individuals Forty years and above.

Smelly breath is probably the major consequences of gum diseases.

Many of the terms which might be greatly associated with smelly breath and gum diseases are listed below:

Dental Plaque- The primary requirement of the prevention and treatment of an illness is definitely an knowledge of its causes. The principal cause of gum diseases is bacteria, which form a complex around the tooth surface generally known as plaque. These bacteria’s are the source of terrible breath.

Dental plaque is bacterial accumulations around the teeth or another solid oral structures. When it is of sufficient thickness, it appears as a whitish, yellowish layer mainly over the gum margins for the tooth surface. Its presence can also be discerned with a conventional dye or fluorescent dye (demonstrated by illumination with ultraviolet light), disclosing solution or by scraping your tooth surface over the gum margins.

When plaque is examined under the microscope, it reveals many several types of bacteria. Some desquamated oral epithelial cells and white blood cells are often present. The micro-organisms detected vary in accordance with the site where these are present.
You will find gram positive and gram negative organisms, filamentous and flagellated organisms, spirochetes and occasionally small amounts of even yeasts, mycoplasma and protozoa.

Clean tooth surfaces after brushing are normally protected by a thin layer of glycoproteins from saliva called pellicle. Pellicle enables the selective adherence of bacteria for the tooth surface.

Through the initial hours, the bacteria proliferate to make colonies. In addition, other organisms will also populate the pellicle from adjacent areas to form a complex accumulation of mixed colonies. The fabric present relating to the bacteria is named intermicrobial matrix forming about 25 % of the plaque volume. This matrix is especially extra cellular carbohydrate polymers made by the bacteria from dietary sugars; salivary and gingival fluid components; and dying and dead bacteria.

Little plaque are works with gingival or periodontal health. Many people can resist larger amounts of plaque for long periods without developing destructive periodontitis (inflammation and destruction of the supporting tissues) but they will exhibit gingivitis (inflammation of the gums or gingiva).

Diet And Plaque Formation- Diet may play a crucial part in plaque formation by modifying just how much and composition of plaque. More the plaque formation would be, there will be more terrible breath.

Fermentable sugars increase plaque formation simply because they provide additional energy supply for bacterial metabolism and also provide the recycleables (substrate) for that manufacture of extra cellular polysaccharides.

Secondary Factors

Although plaque could be the primary cause of gum diseases, numerous others thought to be secondary factors, local and systemic, predispose towards plaque accumulation or customize the response of gum tissue to plaque. A nearby factors are:

1) Cavities inside the teeth;

2) Faulty fillings;

3) Food impaction;

4) Poorly designed partial dentures (dentures);

5) Orthodontic appliances;

6) Misaligned teeth;

7) mouth-breathing

8) Grooves on teeth or roots near gum margins;

9) Reduced salivary flow; and,

10) Tobacco smoking.

The systemic factors which potentially impact the gum tissues are:

1) Systemic diseases, e.g. diabetes mellitus, Down’s syndrome, AIDS, blood disorders while others;

2) Hormonal changes – during puberty, pregnancy, contraceptives intake and menopause;

3) Drug reactions, e.g. immunosuppressive drugs, antihypertensive drugs and antiepileptic drugs; and,

4) Dietary and nutritional factors, e.g. protein deficiency and ascorbic acid and B deficiency.

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